Andrew Carnegie’s decision to help library construction developed out of their own experience. Born in 1835, he spent his first 12 years inside the coastal city of Dunfermline, Scotland. There he heard men read aloud and discuss books borrowed on the Tradesmen’s Subscription Library that his father, a weaver, had helped create. Carnegie began his formal education at age eight, but wanted to stop after only 3 years. The rapid industrialization belonging to the textile trade forced small businessmen like Carnegie’s father out from business. Because of this, the household sold their belongings and immigrated to Allegheny, a suburb of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Andrew Carnegie’s decision to help library construction developed out of their own experience. Born in 1835, he spent his first 12 years inside the coastal city of Dunfermline, Scotland. There he heard men read aloud and discuss books borrowed on the Tradesmen’s Subscription Library that his father, a weaver, had helped create.right here Carnegie began his formal education at age eight, but wanted to stop after only 3 years. The rapid industrialization belonging to the textile trade forced small businessmen like Carnegie’s father out from business. Because of this, the household sold their belongings and immigrated to Allegheny, a suburb of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Although these new circumstances required the young Carnegie to check out work, his learning failed to end. After having a year inside a textile factory, he became a messenger boy towards the local telegraph company. A portion of his fellow messengers introduced him to Col. James Anderson of Allegheny, who every Saturday opened his personal library for any young worker who wished to borrow an ebook. Carnegie later said the colonel opened the windows through which the lighting of knowledge streamed. In 1853, should the colonel’s representatives made an effort to restrict the library’s use, Carnegie wrote a letter towards editor with the Pittsburgh Dispatch defending the suitable among all working boys to take pleasure from the pleasures of your library. More essential, he resolved that, should he ever be wealthy, he will make similar opportunities suitable to other poor workers.
Throughout the next half-century Carnegie accumulated the fortune that might enable him to fulfill that pledge. Throughout his years like a messenger, Carnegie had taught himself the ability of telegraphy. This skill helped him make contacts using the Pennsylvania Railroad, where he traveled to work at age 18. During his 12-year railroad association he rose quickly, ultimately becoming superintendent belonging to the Pennsylvania’s Pittsburgh division. He simultaneously invested in a variety of other businesses, including railroad locomotives, oil, and iron and steel. In 1865, Carnegie left the railroad to take care of the Keystone Bridge Company, that had been successfully replacing wooden railroad bridges with iron ones. By way of the 1870s he was concentrating on steel manufacturing, ultimately creating the Carnegie Steel Company. In 1901 he sold that business for $250 million.
Carnegie then retired and devoted the remainder of his life to philanthropy. Even before selling Carnegie Steel he had started to consider how to handle his immense fortune. In 1889 he wrote a famous essay entitled The Gospel of Wealth, through which he stated that wealthy men should do without extravagance, provide moderately regarding their dependents, and distribute the remainder of their riches to benefit the welfare and happiness of this common man–with all the consideration that will help solely those who will help themselves. The Most Beneficial Fields for Philanthropy, his second essay, listed seven fields which the wealthy should donate: universities, libraries, medical centers, public parks, meeting and concert halls, public baths, and churches. He later expanded this list to include gifts that promoted scientific research, the normal spread of information, and the promotion of world peace. A great number of organizations continue to this day: the Carnegie Corporation in New York City, for instance, helps support Sesame Street.
Owing to his background, Carnegie was particularly serious about public libraries. At one point he stated a library was the best possible gift to get a community, considering that it gave people the opportunity improve themselves. His confidence was in line with the results of similar gifts from earlier philanthropists. In Baltimore, one example is, a library distributed by Enoch Pratt were definitely applied by 37,000 people in 12 month. Carnegie believed that the relatively small number of public library patrons were of more value thus to their community rrn comparison to the masses who chose to not ever benefit from the library.
Carnegie divided his donations to libraries into your retail and wholesale periods. Through the retail period, 1886 to 1896, he gave $1,860,869 for 14 endowed buildings in six communities in the us. These buildings were actually community centers, containing recreational facilities just like private pools as well as libraries. During the years after 1896, known as the wholesale period, Carnegie no longer supported urban multipurpose buildings. Instead he gave $39,172,981 to smaller communities which had limited use of cultural institutions. His gifts provided 1,406 towns with buildings devoted exclusively to libraries. Over half his grants were for less than $ten thousand. Although almost all towns receiving gifts were in your Midwest, as a whole 46 states benefited from Carnegie’s plan.
Andrew Carnegie stopped making gifts for library construction following a report manufactured to him by Dr. Alvin Johnson, an economics professor. In 1916 Dr. Johnson visited 100 of this existing Carnegie libraries and studied their social significance, physical aspects, effectiveness, and financial condition. His final report concluded that as being really effective, the libraries needed trained personnel. Buildings had been provided, these days the time had come to staff all of them pros who would stimulate active, efficient libraries on their communities. Libraries already promised continued to be built until 1923, but after 1919 all financial support was turned to library education.
When Andrew Carnegie died in 1919 at age 84, he had given nearly one-fourth of his life to causes during which he believed. His gifts to various charities totalled nearly $350 million, almost 90 % of his fortune. Carnegie regarded all education as a method to further improve people’s lives, and libraries provided just one of his main tools to aid Americans create a brighter future. Questions for Reading 1 1. How did progress and industrialization affect Carnegie, both as he was young, and later on? 2. Exactly how much formal education did Carnegie have? What factors contributed to his interest on books and reading? 3. What did Carnegie believe wealthy people should do utilizing their money? Why did he believe? Would you agree? 4. How did supporting libraries fit with Carnegie’s past with his fantastic beliefs? Reading 1 was compiled from George S. Bobinski, Carnegie Libraries (Chicago: American Library Association, 1969); Andrew Carnegie, Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie, reprint (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1920 1986); Barry Sears, Over the Trail of Carnegie Libraries, Antiques and Collecting (February 1994); Gerald R. Shields, Recycling Buildings for Libraries, Public Libraries (March/April 1994).